Workplaces that Work
A healthy workplace means more than just warding off colds and the flu. It is more holistic and takes into consideration the physical, spiritual, environmental, intellectual, emotional, occupational and mental health of employees. Wellness promotion doesn't just benefit the employee because an organization filled with healthy and fulfilled employees is a productive workplace that retains its employees. More and more organizations are creating Health and Welfare Committees who are responsible for recognizing health and safety concerns and identifying solutions.
According to the Government of Canada's Work-Life Balance in Canadian Workplaces:
Work-life balance is a self-defined, self-determined state of well being that a person can reach, or can set as a goal, that allows them to manage effectively multiple responsibilities at work, at home, and in their community; it supports physical, emotional, family, and community health, and does so without grief, stress or negative impact.
Studies demonstrate that investing in work-life balance initiatives:
- Reduces absenteeism
- Increases productivity
- Improves morale and working relationships
- Decreases stress
- Attracts new employees
- Helps retain current employees
That makes sense. In today's hectic pace of life, employees are drawn to - and stay with - organizations that help them find balance and personal satisfaction. Nonprofits are no exception. While people may be drawn by a passion for the mission, they will burnout or be turned off if their work-life balance is off kilter for too long.
How to implement work-life balance initiatives
In practical terms, setting up work-life balance initiatives involves the following considerations:
Lots of consultation
Work-life balance initiatives need to be based on your employees' needs, so find out what initiatives would enhance their sense of work-life balance. In smaller organizations, this could be a deliberate one-on-one discussion while in larger organizations this could involve a formal survey.
Buy-in and change management support
Consulting with your staff also provides the chance to talk through any concerns and resistance (see "Dispelling myths") to understand potential resistance and how you can respond. In order for any work-life balance initiatives to be successful, they must not only support employees but also must fit with the needs of the organization. Educate your staff, senior management and the board of directors about the rationale for work-life balance initiatives and how they will benefit employees and the organization. Address concerns and talk openly about challenges and how you will deal with them. Success requires commitment from all staff and the board of directors so this step cannot be underestimated. Depending on your organization's culture, change may be easier (or more difficult) to handle.
Develop a plan
Think through and talk through the logistics of your proposed work-life balance initiatives. For instance:
- How will you handle office coverage?
- What internet security measures do you need for tele-working employees?
- How will you deal with inter-office communication so that everyone is "in the loop"?
- How will you monitor hours, productivity or deadlines?
Set yourself up for success and avoid an overly ambitious plan. Start slowly and modestly.
Policies and procedures
To support your work-life balance initiatives it is imperative to have clearly written policies and procedures so that they are consistently administered and followed.
Set a trial period to see how work-life balance initiatives will work for your organization and how employees handle alternate situations. Make sure your trial covers a representative time period to make sure that your work-life balance initiatives are truly realistic. Another benefit to a trial period is that it often helps people accept change because it is not (at least initially) a permanent change.
At the end of the trial period, ask for recommendations and adjust your initiatives to make them work better for everyone. This is another opportunity to deal with challenges or resistance.
As part of your staff evaluation process, promote your organization's work-life balance initiatives so that all staff is aware of the options.
Staff needs and organizational needs will change. Set a review period for evaluating your initiatives.
According to Duxbury and Higgins, to reduce work-life conflict and improve overall quality of life, employers need to focus their efforts on four sets of initiatives:
As with many new policies and procedures, there are myths or assumptions about what the family-friendly workplace really means. Some of the commonly held myths and the corresponding reality checks are as follows:
MYTH: Family-friendly policies are soft HR issues, mainly for women.
Policies that increase employee health and well-being, foster employee commitment and support families, positively impact everyone (employees; men and women, customers and clients, families and communities.) In some organizations, it is women who have pushed for family-friendly policies since they are usually the primary caregivers, responsible for child care, eldercare and health care as well as primarily responsible for household management (shopping, meals, laundry, cleaning etc.) and are either major contributors to family income or the primary family breadwinner. Men and women at all levels of companies, in all stages of their career development and all stages of their life cycle are seeking flexibility to achieve a better work-life balance.
MYTH: Management will lose control
Some managers may have concerns about giving up control over their workforce by implementing supportive policies and practices, however they actually gain more control over outputs and results by giving control of time management to employees. By providing more control to their employees, managers can help establish a better working relationship. These employees, now more satisfied with their work-life balance, are more inclined to show loyalty to their manager and company. As a result, these managers will likely see a lower turnover rate in their departments.
MYTH: Flexibility is unfair and inequitable
Some managers consider that there needs to be a "one size fits all" solution to flexibility. The reality is that everyone has different needs and so the solutions will be very personal. Different people need different forms of flexibility at different points in their lives (i.e., when they have a baby or when they want to continue their education). Other people are content to work a more traditional workweek and prefer the stability and predictability of a standard work schedule. Solutions to employee needs for flexibility should be custom fits.
MYTH: Hours at work = results (notion of "face time")
In a traditional workplace, managers could always see their employees and so considered them to be working and productive. With employees exploring alternate ways to work such as telecommuting, managers may no longer see them. Some may have concerns about what employees are doing during the day if working from home. The keys to success are good trust, regular communication and clear performance targets.
MYTH: Only for non-managerial positions
This was the case when flexible work options were first introduced in the 1990s. However, as more women have moved into senior management positions and more men are juggling their careers with fatherhood, this has changed. Many companies offer their work-life balance policies to employees at all levels.
MYTH: Participation in family-friendly policies is a career-limiting move
Research studies have shown that for most people, working a flexible work arrangement does not limit their careers, although it may slow down the career path, or reduce some options. For example, if an employee reduces their work hours, they may not be willing or interested in taking a position or promotion that requires extended travel. Employees need to assess the pros, cons and career impact when deciding whether a flexible work arrangement is for them.
If however, the career impact is the result of unsupported assumptions (e.g., those who use flexible work arrangements are less committed to the company or unable to take on increased responsibility), you may need to take measures to dispel these perceptions. It is also one of the reasons it is recommended to conduct follow-up assessments of your programs and policies. You could, for example, assess over time, the impact on promotions of those who use work-life options such as flexible work arrangements versus those in traditional work situations.
MYTH: Hard to measure impact on bottom line
Many companies now have access to solid statistics about how family-friendly policies positively impact the bottom-line. Through employee attitude surveys, focus groups and pilot tests, senior management know that employees with lower work-family conflict have less stress and anxiety about "doing it all" and are better able to focus on their jobs and their customers.
MYTH: It won't work for jobs with direct customer contact
With more companies moving towards 24/7 operations, telephone call-centres and service provided at customer's homes and offices, the need for flexibility has grown. Customers are looking for good quality service, and prefer to deal with a happy employee who is satisfied with their work.
Prepared by Dr. Linda Duxbury and Dr. Chris Higgins for the Healthy Communities Division, Health Canada. Duxbury and Higgins studies over 31,500 employees in 100 public, private and not-for-profit organizations (all numbering at least 500 employees).
Wellness program options
There are many ways that you can support work-life balance in your workplace - even with a limited budget. Start by finding out from your employees what wellness program options would support their work-life balance. Then back up your wellness program with policies, encourage employees to make use of your workplace wellness options and affirm that tapping into these options will not negatively affect their employment with you.
Below is information on the following wellness program options:
- Dependant care
- Flexible work arrangements
- Leaves of absence and vacation
- Education and training opportunities
- Encouraging fitness and healthy living
- Religious observances
- Supportive managers
- Other management approaches
Almost 20% of all paid employees in the nonprofit sector are women with at least one child under 12 years of age at home (compared to 14.2% in the for-profit sector). The 2001 National Work-Life Conflict study determined that women are more likely to feel stressed by the combined demands of work and family responsibilities.
However, it's not just about childcare. Many mid-life employees are part of the "sandwich generation" which means that they take care of their children and their parents. Demographic projections suggest we have yet to feel the full effects of eldercare problems as the percent of the workforce involved in eldercare is expected to increase from one in five to one in four in the next decade (Statistics Canada, 2000a).
Dependant care initiatives can include:
- On-site dependant care
- Having an arrangement with a community child care or elder care centre to provide emergency care
- Seasonal childcare programs (such as March break or Christmas)
- Financial assistance towards dependant care
- Referral information for dependant care services
- Allowing employees to take personal days instead of vacation days to deal with appointments or unexpected dependant care issues
Check your provincial or territorial Employment Standards to review the most current legislation and requirements.
Flexible work arrangements
Flexibility can be helpful to both the organization and to the employee. From the employee's point of view, flexible work may allow more freedom to organize their work to fit in with other parts of their life. For a nonprofit organization, the flexibility may come with the ability to organize staffing more in line with the varying needs of clients, or with peaks and troughs of workload.
Will flexibility cost more? There may be some short-term costs related to becoming a more flexible employer, for example, to set up the technology for an employee to work at home. On the other hand, some costs can be reduced. For example, less office space may be needed. Happier staff members will stay longer at your organization, and by retaining experienced staff you will reduce the cost of recruitment and training. Usually, the benefits will outweigh the costs.
Flexible benefit plans allow employees to build a benefit program that meets their needs and budget. Employees can opt in or out, fully or partially by choosing from a menu of benefit options that make sense for their current situation. However, "cafeteria" style benefits tend to be more costly. Instead, you may want to target benefits to the highest employer/employee priorities. Talk to your benefits provider to create a benefits plan that works for you and your employees.
Leaves of absence and vacation
Employment standards state what your legal obligations are with regards to leaves of absence (e.g. maternity and parental) and vacation allotments. As an employer, you must follow these standards. In addition, you can support work-life balance by providing:
- A limited number of annual paid leave days for personal reasons
- Community service/day of volunteering leave
- Education leave
- Bereavement leave
- Self-funded leaves or sabbaticals
- Top-up programs for maternity/parental leave
- Continued benefits coverage during a leave of absence
Education and training opportunities
Consider offering on-site seminars and workshops on topics such as stress, healthy living, communication styles, etc. Start by polling your employees for suggested topics that they would like to learn more about. Encouraging employees (and underwriting the cost) to tap into external educational and training opportunities is another option.
Encouraging fitness and healthy living
In addition to offering workshops, you can put a commitment to healthy living into action by:
- Offering fitness facilities, fitness membership assistance or having a fitness instructor come to your workplace
- Hosting on-site flu immunization or blood donor clinics
- Encouraging employees to walk, cycle or run during lunch hours
- Enforcing a smoke-free work environment
- Offering smoking cessation programs or incentives
- Offering secure bicycle parking
- Serving healthy alternatives when catering meetings or workshops
- Ensuring good workplace ergonomics
- Displaying tent cards in lunch rooms with healthy lifestyle tips or the Canada Food Guide
Packed with tips and information on how to get your employees on a road to better health by making physical activity and healthy eating part of the workday.
For people who follow religious practices, these practices and observances are an important aspect of their work-life balance. Therefore it needs to be factored into work-life balance initiatives, including (but not limited to):
- Alternative days off for holy days (for example, trading the Good Friday holiday for one that is religiously significant to the employee)
- Not scheduling meetings, conferences, etc. during holy periods
- Providing quiet room for prayer
There is a distinction between accommodating religious observance (for example, Yom Kippur) versus accommodating a culturally significant observance (for example, Chinese New Year). Employers are not required to accommodate culturally significant events; however, it may be important as part of a work-life balance initiative, to accommodate these requests.
The Employee Assistance Professionals Association defines an employee assistance program (EAP) as:
A worksite-based program designed to assist in the identification and resolution of productivity problems associated with employees impaired by personal concerns, including, but not limited to, health, marital, family, financial, alcohol, drug, legal, emotional, stress, or other personal concerns which may adversely affect employee job performance.
EAP services are uaually provided by an external company that specializes in this area and there is a cost (usually based on utilization). Most offer employees and their family members access to a 24-hour toll-free information line and then assist the caller in finding the resources they need.
EASNA's website includes a professional code of ethics, which can help you evaluate the credentials and suitability of EAP service providers.
According to Duxbury and Higgins, supportive managers are a key factor for achieving work-life balance. Not all managers are comfortable with non-traditional work arrangements so educate senior management about the importance of workplace wellness initiatives and the options and policies within your organization. Also, encourage senior management to be role models by focusing on their own work-life balance and tapping into workplace wellness initiatives.
Other management approaches
The following management approaches can significantly improve work/life balance for employees:
- Eliminate unnecessary meetings or reports
- Communicate expectations clearly to your staff
- Encourage information sharing amongst staff and between management and employees
- Allow staff to control their own priorities as much as possible
- Promote employee participation in decision-making
- Reduce unnecessary work-related travel
- In larger organizations, identify "champions" at all levels that will promote work/life balance initiatives
One-quarter of Canadians consider their work to be a significant source of stress (Source: Canadian Health Network). Perhaps you include yourself in that equation. Stress causes physical, psychosocial and behavioural signs and symptoms but the risk is not just to personal well-being. In the workplace, stress can translate into performance issues, job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, staff turnover, compromised working relationships, lack of motivation and creativity. Therefore, stress management is key to workplace wellness.
Causes of stress in the workplace
In the workplace, stress can be the result of any number of situations. Some examples include:
Categories of Job Stressors
Factors unique to the job
|Role in the organization||
Relationships at work (Interpersonal)
(Adapted from: Murphy, L. R., Occupational Stress Management: Current Status and Future Direction. in Trends in Organizational Behavior, 1995, Vol. 2, p. 1-14)
How organizations can reduce workplace stress
There are a number of strategies to help minimize stress in the workplace, including (but not limited to):
- Provide a safe and comfortable physical working environment (e.g. noise, air quality, hazards, quality of lighting, ergonomics)
- Provide tasks that are reasonably demanding but not over-demanding
- Give employees a variety of tasks to do
- Let employees make their own decisions when possible
- Provide opportunities for people to enhance their skills
- Encourage social support in the workplace
- Implement a meaningful employee recognition program
- During recruitment, give the applicant as much information about the position as possible so that there is the best chance for a good fit with the person and the task
- Clearly define employees' roles and responsibilities
- Ensure workloads are reasonable
- Provide flexible work arrangements
- Provide opportunities for leaves of absence
- Implement a workplace wellness program
- Communicate organizational changes to staff and allow time for employees to adjust
- Ensure after work activities are not mandatory
- Provide intentional social opportunities in the workplace
- Conduct thorough orientation and training so staff feel confident and set up for success
Stress Management Checklist (DOC 94KB)
The Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE)'s website includes a "Solutions and Strategies for Change" section.
A guide developed by the University of Laval Chair in Occupational Health and Safety Management. The guide includes prevention and intervention strategies, a stress assessment questionnaire and an implementation action plan.
Occupational health and safety legislation
Occupational health and safety legislation regulates the standards of workplace safety with the aim to prevent workplace accidents and injury, and outlines consequences to breaches in those standards. It details responsibilities of employers, supervisors and employees . Generally this legislation requires that the employer do everything they can reasonably do to protect the health and safety of their employees. This includes, but is not limited to: providing appropriate training for handling potentially dangerous equipment and/or material, informing employees of potential dangers in the workplace, and setting up safe work practices. Employees have the right to refuse work that is unsafe.
The OSH Answers section addresses common questions including information about legislation and is one of the best sources of information about occupations health and safety.